White matter month: 6 disconnectivity papers, disconnected in subject matter except that they have to do with disconnectivity

Image from: http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/File:Fig_bc.jpg#filelinks

Image from: http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/File:Fig_bc.jpg#filelinks

Wow, we didn’t realize how old school the term “white matter” is — we should really be talking more generally about “connectivity.”  Look at this graph of PUBMED papers containing the term “connectivity” by year:

Brain connectivity 2

“Connectivity” is so complicated and so central that we just took a scattershot approach to looking at some recent papers   — fetal alcohol, bed wetting, appetite, nature/nurture, synesthesia and genes.  Our unified field theory of psychopathy has to do with brain wiring being messed up due to in utero retinoid toxicity, but we’re not so gung-ho on that one anymore given all the functional and structural inputs to how the brain is wired.

Here are some papers:

1. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is associated with global functional connectivity abnormalities. We wondered the connectivity abnormalities would have been more localized, if the in utero toxicity (of the alcohol) affected only certain developmental stages. This report says the abnormalities are more global:

Wozniak JR, Mueller BA, Bell CJ, Muetzel RL, Hoecker HL, Boys CJ, Lim KO. Global Functional Connectivity Abnormalities in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 Dec 14. doi: 10.1111/acer.12024. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23240997.

2. Bed wetting was historically correlated with psychopathic predisposition, although later not so much (according to  Wikipedia). Perhaps it ‘s time to revisit whether nocturnal enuresis  is associated with psychopathy in view of a report pointing to aberrant whole-brain functional connectivity:

BedYu B, Sun H, Ma H, Peng M, Kong F, Meng F, Liu N, Guo Q. Aberrant whole-brain functional connectivity and intelligence structure in children with primary nocturnal enuresis. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e51924. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051924. Epub 2013 Jan 2. PubMed PMID: 23300958.

3. Here’s that paper about how fructose doesn’t satisfy appetite — although satiety signals are activated, the reward pathway is not:

Page KA, Chan O, Arora J, Belfort-Deaguiar R, Dzuira J, Roehmholdt B, Cline GW, Naik S, Sinha R, Constable RT, Sherwin RS. Effects of fructose vs glucose on regional cerebral blood flow in brain regions involved with appetite and reward
pathways. JAMA. 2013 Jan 2;309(1):63-70. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.116975. PubMed PMID: 23280226.

“. . . Glucose ingestion (compared with baseline) increased functional connectivity between the hypothalamus and the thalamus and striatum. Fructose increased connectivity between the hypothalamus and thalamus but not the striatum.. . .”

4. Raised by rage-o-holics? You may have permanent changes in your connectivity:

van der Werff SJ, Pannekoek JN, Veer IM, van Tol MJ, Aleman A, Veltman DJ, Zitman FG, Rombouts SA, Elzinga BM, van der Wee NJ. Resting-state functional connectivity in adults with childhood emotional maltreatment. Psychol Med. 2012
Dec 20:1-12. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23254143.

“We found that CEM [childhood emotional maltreatment] has a profound effect on RSFC [resting-state functional connectivity]  in the limbic network and the salience network. Regions that show aberrant connectivity are related to episodic memory encoding, retrieval and self-processing operations.”

5. More on Bouba/Kiki – sounds and tactile feeling are anatomically connected:

Ro T, Ellmore TM, Beauchamp MS. A Neural Link Between Feeling and Hearing. Cereb Cortex. 2012 Jun 12. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22693344.

6. A genetic correlation with prefrontal connectivity?

Paulus FM, Krach S, Bedenbender J, Pyka M, Sommer J, Krug A, Knake S, Nöthen MM, Witt SH, Rietschel M, Kircher T, Jansen A. Partial support for ZNF804A genotype-dependent alterations in prefrontal connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp. 2013 Feb;34(2):304-13. doi: 10.1002/hbm.21434. Epub 2011 Oct 31. PubMed PMID: 22042765.

  “Genome-wide association studies identified the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in ZNF804A as a common risk-variant for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder[ ]. . .Decoupled by default, the functional connectivity between the right DLPFC [dorsolateral prefrontal cortices] and anterior HFs [hippocampal formation] increased with the number of rs1344706 risk alleles. The present data support fronto-hippocampal dysconnectivity as intermediate phenotype linking rs1344706 genotype to psychosis.. . .”